There is a perception
that the Muslim population has grown exponentially resulting in a significant change in the share of Hindu & Muslim population across the country. What do the numbers say?

India’s
population growth rate has shown a declining trend over the past few decades as
noted in one of Factly’s
earlier stories
. However, data also reveals that the population growth rates are not
even across the country. The Hindi speaking states of North India have a
population growth rate more than that of India, while the southern states
perform better with lower rate of population growth.

An earlier review
of
the highly populated districts in India, showed that many of these
districts are urban districts and the increase in their population over the
decade (2001-2011) is largely due to the migration into the major urban
centers.

At the same
time, it is also true that the population growth rate in India is different for
different religious communities. We explore this in this story, especially with
respect to Hinduism and Islam, which happen to be the largest religious
communities in India.

Marginal
increase in share of Muslim population across the states

As per the 2001 census, the share of Hindu population in India was 80.4% while by 2011 it decreased marginally to 79.8%. The share of Muslim population in 2001 was 13.4% while it increased to 14.2% by 2011. The share of other religions in the population of India is significantly lower, with Christianity, the larger of the other religions accounting for 2.34% of the population in 2001 and 2.30% as per 2011 census.

The change in
the share of population for both Hindu and Muslim communities in India has been
marginal across the states. The share of Hindu population dropped by 0.65%
whereas the share of Muslim population has increased by 0.8%.

The share of
Hindu population within the states has marginally declined across the states
while Muslim population share has registered a marginal increase across
multiple states during the 2001-11 period. This reflects the marginal decrease
and increase of Hindu and Muslim population share respectively at the national
level.

The Union
territories and states including Nagaland and Punjab have a positive growth in
share of Hindu population. However, the Hindu community in these states is a
minority and hence the base figures are less. The majority community is
Christian and Sikh respectively in these states.

Assam, West
Bengal, Chhattisgarh and Kerala are the larger states which has seen a decrease
in share of Hindu population by more than 1%.  The decrease in the share of Hindu population
was less than 1% in the other big states. In Assam, the share of Muslims
increased by around 3.31% whereas the share of Hindus decreased by 3.42%. In
the case of West Bengal, the share of Hindu population decreased by 1.93% while
the Muslim population share increased by 1.77% during 2001-11.

The Muslim
population growth rate is more than the Hindu population across most of the
states. Assam, Uttarakhand, West Bengal, Kerala, J&K, Haryana and Delhi are
among the larger states where the share of Muslim population increased by more
than 1%. Assam recorded the highest change with increase by 3.31% followed by
Uttarakhand with 2.03%.

What about
change in share in Districts?

Out of the 593
districts as per 2001 census (new districts of 2011 census are consolidated
into the older districts for better comparison), 20 districts have a population
of over 50 Lakhs as noted in one of Factly’s
earlier stories
.

The share on Hindu
population in these 20 districts has gone down by 0.77%. It was 79.26% in 2001
and is 78.49% as per 2011 census. Correspondingly, the share of Muslim
population has grown from 17% to 17.85 % i.e. an increase by 0.85% during the
same period in these 20 districts.

Further, there
are 35 districts which have population between 40-50 Lakhs. The share of Hindu
population in these districts during 2001 census was 81.47% which fell by 0.78%
to 80.69% in 2011.  

The share of
Muslim population in these districts increased by 0.76% from 16.2% in 2001 to
16.96% in 2011. The fall in Hindu population share is comparatively lower in
the districts with 30-40 lakh population with a decrease of 0.57%. On other
hand, the increase in Muslim population for these districts is 0.81%.

The overall share of Hindu population in all these highly populated districts (more than 30 Lakhs) as per 2011 census is 79.26% and that of Muslim population is 16.73% there by impacting the overall change in the share of population at national level. This also means that the Muslim population is concentrated in highly populated districts.

The change in
share of Hindu Population in districts with population of 20-30 lakhs and 10-20
lakhs is the least among the population size groups with a reduction of 0.22%
and 0.23% respectively. The increase in Muslim population share is also the
least with 0.53% and 0.48% respectively in these two population groups. A total
of 307 districts i.e., more than half of the total districts fall under these
two population size groups. The share of Muslim population in these districts
is only 11.98% which is less than the national share of 14.2%.

Larger variance
in the population is observed in the group of districts with less than 10 Lakhs
population (there are 157 districts). Hindu population share has decreased by
1.16% in these districts while the share of Muslim population increased by
1.03% during 2001-11.

Districts with
extreme population share change distributed across various population sizes.

A total of 192
districts of the 593 have witnessed a change in the share of Hindu population
by more than 1%. Of these, share of Hindu population in 150 districts reduced
by more than 1% in the 2001-11 period. In the rest of 42 districts, the share
of Hindu population increase by more than 1%.  Around 110 of the 150 districts with fall in population
share of Hindus by more than 1% are those with a population of less than 30 lakhs.

In 16 out of
the 24 districts in Assam, the share of Hindu population decreased by more than
2%. In Nalabri and Barpeta districts of Assam, both with population of more
than 10 lakhs, the share of Hindu population decreased by a whopping 12.39% and
11.05% respectively, while the Muslim population in these districts has increased
by 13.87% and 11.37% respectively. In Nagaon and Kamprup districts of Assam
with more than 23 lakh population, the share of Hindu population has reduced by
4.41% and 2.7% respectively while the share of Muslim population increased by
4.37% and 2.39% respectively in the 2001-11 period.

South Twenty-Four
Paraganas and Murshidabad districts of West Bengal, with population of 69 Lakhs
and 58 Lakhs respectively, have seen a drop in the share of Hindu population by
2.69% and 2.71% respectively. The share of Muslim population in these districts
grew by 2.33% and 2.6%.

Ranchi with
population of 27 Lakhs has a seen an increase in the share of Hindu population
by 5% and even Muslim population share in this district has increased by 1.57%.
Ranchi has seen a decline in Christian population during 2001-11. The share of
Hindu population increased by 3.21% in Ludhiana district of Punjab that has 30
lakh population as per 2011 census.

The share of
Muslim population changed by more than 1% in only 98 districts out of 593
districts. Of these, the share increased by more than 1% in 89 districts while
it decreased in the rest of districts.

Of the
districts with more than 30 lakhs population, Muzaffarnagar (3.22%), Saharanpur
(2.84%), Murshidabad (2.6%), Uttar Dinajpur (2.56%), South Twenty-Four
Paraganas (2.33%), Hyderabad (2.28%) and Aligarh (2.07%) have registered the
highest increase in the share of Muslim population between 2001-11.

Is there an
exponential growth in the share of Muslim population?

The increase in
the share of Muslim population across the country was less than 1% i.e. 0.8%
over a decade. Considering that the overall share of Muslim population is only
14.2% in comparison to Hindu population (79.8%), the growth in  the share of Muslim population is marginal contrary
to the perception of exponential growth in Muslim Population. However, as noted
earlier, in certain districts of the country, the share of Muslim population
has grown exponentially.

Featured Image: Hindu & Muslim population

The post What is the change in Hindu & Muslim population share between 2001 & 2011? appeared first on FACTLY.

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