By
the end of 2017, there were a total of 1.39 lakh convicts serving their
sentence in Indian prisons. More than 95% of these convicts were male and more
than 70% are those who were either illiterate or only studied up to Class X.
Data also shows that more than 50% of the convicts were serving life
imprisonment.

The age and
education levels of under-trials as per the data in the Prison Statistics of
India for 2017 were discussed in an earlier
story by Factly
. This story aims to look
at the social aspects of the convicts, their age, education, type of offence
and punishment.

Convicts, unlike
under-trials, are those who have been found guilty of having committed a crime.
Prison
Statistics of India for 2017

was released by the NCRB
recently. As on 31 December 2017, there were a total of 4.5 lakh inmates across
various jails in India. Convicts comprised of 31% of the inmates. Of the 1.39 lakh
convicts, 1.33 lakh (95.6%) were male and 6,051 (4.3%) were female convicts.

One-fifth of the total convicts were reported in Uttar
Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh
accounted for the largest
number of convicts
in jails. Almost
one-fifth the total convicts in Indian jails were in the jails of Uttar
Pradesh. 20% of the male convicts and 17% of the female convicts in the country
were reported in Uttar Pradesh. Also, 29% of the prison inmates in Uttar
Pradesh are convicts compared to the national average of 31%.

Even if the number
of convicts in Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir,
Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, Telangana, Uttarakhand,
Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and Assam along with those from UTs of Andaman
and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Delhi, Daman and Diu and Pondicherry are
combined (23,239), which is convicts in 16 States & 5 UTs, the number is
still 15.4% less than the number of convicts in Uttar Pradesh (27,501).

Convicts in Prisons_Top ten states with number of Convicts in Prisons

Following Uttar
Pradesh is Madhya Pradesh with 17,273 convicts or 12.4% of the all the convicts
in India.  Maharashtra and Punjab have
reported more than 9000 convicts each. It is also observed that the convicts in
Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Punjab alone constitute 46% of
the total convicts in the country.

Half of the convicts were those aged between 30 to 50
years

The age
group
data of the convicts reveals that 50%
of the convicts belonged to the age group of 30 to 50 years. Another 31%
belonged to the age group of 18 to 30 years. Those who were 50 years of age and
above made up the remaining 19%.

Convicts in Prisons_Age profile of Convicts

While 51% of the
female convicts were of the age group between 30 to 50 years of age, those
female convicts above 50 years of age accounted for 25% of the total female
convicts. The only male convict below 18 years of age was incarcerated in West
Bengal.

92% of the convicts were imprisoned in their state of
domicile

92% of the
convicts belonged
to the state
in which they were
reported to have been imprisoned. Another 7% are those convicts who did not
belong to the state in which they were held captive while the rest belonged to
another country.

Bangladeshis comprised 63% of the foreign convicts in Indian
jails

Around 2,227
convicts were those belonging to different
countries
. 62% of the foreign convicts were
reported in the prisons of West Bengal. Bangladeshis alone made up 63% of the
foreign convicts. 283 people belonging to Nepal and 125 belonging to Myanmar
were also convicted. 

More than 70% of the convicts were illiterate or
educated up to class X

Just like in the
case of under-trials, a large chunk (71%) of the convicts in prison was
comprised of those who were either illiterate
or were educated
up to class X. Out of
these, 42% of the convicts were educated below class X and the remaining 29%
were illiterate.

Convicts in Prisons_Education profile of Convicts

Those who had
education equivalent to graduation, diploma and above accounted for 9%. The
remaining 20% comprised of those who had a qualification above class X but
below graduation.

88% of the convicts were convicted for IPC crimes

Crimes committed
by the convicts are broadly categorised as those committed under Indian
Penal Code
(IPC) and those under Special
and Local Law
s
(SLL).  88% of the convicts committed
crimes under the IPC and the remaining under SLL.

Of those who
committed crimes under IPC, 84% were convicted of offences affecting the human
body like rape, murder, dowry death, kidnap and assault. More than 70,000
convicts who were behind the bars were those involved in murder and a further 10,890
were convicted for rape.

Uttar Pradesh accounted for largest number of convicts
for offences against women and SC/ST

Uttar Pradesh accounted
for 45% of the convicts in the country for dowry deaths. 22.6% of convicts for
murder and 42% of those arrested for offences against SC/ST were also reported
in Uttar Pradesh. Maharashtra accounted for almost 11% of those convicted for
offences against property such as arson, burglary and theft.

The number of convicts
held for crimes against women was the highest in Uttar Pradesh. 26% (4847) of
those convicted for crimes against women were in Uttar Pradesh. Madhya Pradesh,
which reported the second highest number of convicts under the same head
accounted for 12.5% (less than half of Uttar Pradesh) of the total across the
country.

Convicts in Prisons_Types of offences

Punjab had the largest number of convicts under liquor
and narcotics related acts

Under Special and
Local Laws, 9,637 convicts were imprisoned for liquor and narcotics under the
Prohibition Act, Excise Act and the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances
Act. They made up for 7% of the total convicts and 57% of those convicted under
SLL.

Punjab accounted
for the maximum number of convicts held for liquor and narcotics related
offences i.e. 3,993 out of the total 9,637 which is 41% of the total. In fact,
those convicted under these acts made up for 41% of the total convicts in
Punjab.

347 convicts in jail are those who have been sentenced
to capital punishment

Capital punishment
refers to the most severe form of punishment in the country for the most
heinous and gruesome offences. In India, according to the Code
of Criminal Procedure
, capital punishment is
the death sentence.

In 2017 alone, 121
convicts were sentenced to capital punishment.
A total of 347 convicts in the prisons by the end of 2017 were those sentenced
to death. 19% of them were reported in Maharashtra followed by Uttar Pradesh
(14%) and West Bengal (11%).

Convicts in Prisons_Duration of confinement of Convicts

Almost 53% of the
convicts in the jails were those who were serving life imprisonment. Those
undergoing sentence of 10 to 13 years accounted for 15% of the total convicts
in jails.

Even after the
completion of their sentence, a total of 1658 convicts were still detained in
prisons for not paying the penalty imposed upon them. Around 1.18 lakh convicts
were released in 2017 after their conviction period. Around 53,133 convicts
were released on bail. About 3,372 convicts were reported to be suffering from
mental illnesses in 2017.

The post More than 50% of the Convicts in Prisons by the end of 2017 were serving Life Imprisonment appeared first on FACTLY.

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